What are Nutrients?

Nutrients: Nutrients are of two types minor and major nutrients. Minor nutrients are further divided into minerals and vitamins.Minor nutrietns handle the chemical reactions that occur with major nutrients. 



Major nutrients are used as energy sources for larger biochemical compounds. Protins ,carbohydrates and lipids(fats) are major nutrients.

Balanced diet means the consumption of all the necessary minor and major nutrients. If your diet is unbalanced will affect body functions because of lacking some energy sources.

Carbohydrates:
These are a type of molecules consist of starches and sugars,and provide enegy after broken down. All Carbohydrates contain oxygen,carbon, and hydrogen. Carbohydrates are categorized on the basis of thier size: disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polysaccharides.

Monosaccharides: are simple sugars such as fructose, glocose and galactose.

Disaccharides: are made up of two monosaccharides and Disaccharides have three types maltose,lactose and sucrose. In this three Disaccharides have glocose as at least one of its sugar units. Sucrose is common table sugar made of fructose and glucose. Lactose is the sugar found in dairy products and made of galactose and glucose. Maltose is basically used to make beer and can be found in malted things. disaccharides cannot pass through cell membrane due to its large size, so disaccharides must be separated into monosaccharides to pass through cell membrane.Monoaccharides and disaccharides are found in molasses, sugarcane, ,sugar beets, milk and honey.

Polysaccharides:
When many monosaccharides link together in a long chain forming Polysaccharides. Polysaccharides have two types (1) glycogen and (2)starches. Both glycogen and starches are made up of glucose with small difference in forms depending on their chemical bonds and source. polysaccharides are stored by plants and animals in the form of short-term energy storage. Polysaccharides must be browken down in body to their glucose units for energy consumption.

Cellulose is type of polysaccharide ant the important component of wood. It is made of hydrogen,carbon and oxygen atoms. The most abundant organic compound. It cannot be divided into smaller units and digestibility is very slow in human body. Cellulose don't have direct nutritional effect to humans and also gives no energy to body. Cellulose helps to remove waste from the body. Basically it is a plant fiber and human lack the enzymes need to break cellulose.

What are Starches?
Starches are type of carbohydrate found in plants and starches are further divided into two types on the basis of complexity of structure: (i) Amylopectin and (ii) amylose. Starches are present in legumes, grains,and root types of vegetables.

Amylose has a simple struchture similar to a bunch of strings made up of glucose molecules connected together in a straight line. Amylose is easily digested by our body.

Amylopectin are more complex in structure and consist of huge number of cross-linkages between the strings and Amylopectin is not easily digested in body. 

Glycogen is the type of carbohydrate found in animals. Glycogen are similar to amylopectin in structure ,but less complex. Glycogen is found in all animals and the primary source is beef.

When our body don't need carbohydrates then they are converted to glycogen and store in liver. When the body need glucose the liver breaks down glycogen to release glucose. In case of deficiency of sugar in diet the amino acid is supplied to make glucose instead of proteins.

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